Classical and Modern Music

Format: CD

Šifra: 114793

EAN: 3838898114793


The traverse flute, made from precious wood, boxwood, mahogany or ivory, established itself in classical music at the beginning of the 18th century, especially after 1720, when due to new technical advancements it became possible to shift the pitch of the instrument consequently allowing it to integrate more easily into a larger instrumental ensemble. The development of the instrument was accompanied by the appearance of diverse literature, as the flute gained in importance and matched the violin in popularity. Several great flute players, such as the Prussian king Frederick the Great, contributed to its ascent. Quite different was the development of the harp, which, by the end of the 18th century did not have the mechanics for chamber or orchestral performance. Despite this, its popularity grew, especially by the end of the 18th century, when it became closely associated with Marie Antoinette. The pedal mechanics were successfully developed by a French harp and piano manufacturer Sébastien Érard, who in 1810 patented the double pedal harp. The ability to play all the tonalities elevated the harp and turned it into a solo, chamber and orchestral instrument, which features prominently even today.
Concertos originally written for flute, harp and orchestra are quite rare. Mozart, who wrote two concertos for flute and orchestra, dedicated a single work to the harp, the Concerto for Flute, Harp and Orchestra in C Major (KV 299/297c). It was written in 1778 after his Paris visit, where he toured the aristocratic circles with his mother and met Count de Guines, a well-known flutist. The Count wished to perform with his daughter, a talented harpist. Mozart created the piece believing that the symbiosis of the two soloists does not make sense, whilst keeping in mind the technical and musical prowess of the musicians, which he held in the highest regard. He added a cadenza with many improvisation notes, which, unfortunately, was not preserved. Today Carl Reinecke’s cadenza is the one most often played. Although Mozart might not have trusted the pairing of solo instruments, he has created one of the best concertos of all time, which highlights the musical elegance, perfect measure of figurative and melodious motifs that require precise technical skills and sophisticated interpretation of musical thought. Above all the work serves to demonstrate an elegant symbiosis of the two soloists.
Johann Sebastian Bach in his early Leipzig years wrote six sonatas for flute (or violin) and harpsichord (BWV 1014-1019). The Sonata in G minor (BWV 1020), is also attributed to him, although it is possible that it was in fact an early work of his son Carl Philipp Emanuel. It was originally written for flute (or violin) and harpsichord, perhaps even for the acoustically completely different clavichord, yet it established itself as flute and harp work. Notwithstanding certain dilemmas, the glossy diction of the gallant style places it among the most prominent late Baroque chamber works, written in the style of Bach. The first movement (Allegro) begins with glossy harp solo figure, then in the equivalent polyphony of dialogue develops a broad melodic flow and returns to the introductory expressive ritornello. The second movement (Adagio) indicates subtle and emotional poetic flute melody, complemented by a sophisticated harp play, which does not overstep the boundaries of an accompanying instrument, while the last movement (Allegro) is once again an intertwinement of the two soloists, who each in their own draw attention to themselves, whilst respecting the dialogue.
Mozart's Sonata no. 4 in F Major (KV 13) belongs to a collection of six sonatas for violin and piano (originally for violin and harpsichord, with separate parts for the flute and cello), which he wrote at a young age, at the time of his big European tour (1763-1766), when he went to London in 1764 to meet queen Charlotte, wife of George III. The eight-year-old boy, who was renown in aristocratic circles, got a chance to accompany on the organ the Queen, known for her pleasant voice, and wide vocal range. As a sign of affection, he dedicated to her the six before-mentioned sonatas, published by his father Leopold in London in 1765 (known as Opus 3). These works are stylistically attuned to the early Joseph Haydn piano trios or works of Johann Christian Bach, the Queen's music teacher, which he got to know and perform at the English court. It is believed that it was Johann Christian who influenced the creation of Mozart's first symphonies. The violin or flute sonata cycle is a reflection of an eight-year boy wonder, who, with the help of his London teacher Johann Christian had absorbed the compositional principles of the time and masterfully created in the spirit of the glossy gallant style, which, among other things, characterizes the greatness of the Italian opera.
Darja Koter, PhD.
Translated by: Petra Mitrović

Karolina Šantl Zupan graduated and completed her postgraduate studies at the Ljubljana Academy. She furthered her studies at the College of Music and Fine Arts in Vienna.
In the course of her studies she took part in a great number of national and international competitions and received numerous awards. In 1990 she was awarded a special prize by the jury at the Markneukirchen.
Karolina Šantl Zupan began her professional career with the Slovenian Philharmonic Orchestra. She has also worked as a solo flutist in the orchestra of the Slovene Opera and Ballet Ljubljana. She has performed in various chamber ensembles with recognised Slovenian and foreign artists. In 2001 she has become a member of the International flute quartet 4Syrinx. She has been taken part in cultural life in Europe and Asia.
In 1995 she started teaching at the Ljubljana Academy of Music and since 2008 she holds position as a Professor of Flute also at Zagreb Academy of Music. Her success as a teacher has been confirmed by her numerous students who have received prizes at state and international competitions. She frequently takes part in summer schools, holding annual seminars and master classes abroad and in Slovenia.
Her area of research is the interaction between the artistic and teaching aspect of education for future woodwind teachers. Her articles are being presented at international scientific symposiums.
Alongside her pedagogical work she also regularly performs at solo recitals and with various orchestras. Her discography includes nine albums. She is Yamaha Flute Artist.

Mojca Zlobko Vajgl, harpist and Professor at the Academy of music at the University of Ljubljana, is one of the leading musicians of Slovenia, with a rich international career as soloist and chamber musician.
She graduated from the Music Academy in Ljubljana and completed postgraduate harp studies at the Academy of Music and Theatre in Hamburg with prof. Maria Graf.
As soloist Mojca Zlobko Vajgl played with many prominent orchestras, such as: Slovenian Philharmonic orchestra and RTV Slovenia Symphony Orchestra, Philharmonic orchestras of Belgrade, Kiev, Sarajevo, Baku, Skopje, Wiener Concert Verein, Berlin Symphony Orchestra, Orchestre di Padova el del Veneto, Stockholm chamber orchestra and many other orchestras.
Being dedicated to chamber music, Mojca Zlobko Vajgl during the past years regularly played with the Leipzig string quartet, the international string quartet Orpheus, with the Slovenian string qurtet Tartini and with many prominent international soloists as solo flutist of Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra Dieter Flurry and violist Tobias Lea, concert master of the Slovenian philharmonic orchestra Miran Kolbl, Italian flutist Massimo Mercelli, Latvian flutist Ilze Urbane, mezzosoprano Bernarda Fink etc.
She performed with many outstanding conductors like: Ulf Schirmer, Leopold Hager, Pavel Dešpalj, Tetsui Honna, Roberto Benzi, Israel Yinon, Evan Christ, Roman Kofman, Peter Rundel, Uroš Lajovic, Marcello Viotti, Karen Kamenšek and George Pehlivanian.
Mojca Zlobko Vajgl performed at numerous international music festivals from Dubrovnik to Gabala, Schleswig Hollstein, Ljubljana, Riga, Vienna, Ankara, Bahrain, Belgrade, Ohrid and many others.
The musical critics praised in her interpretations her extraordinary musicality, technical perfection, broad spectrum of colours and outstanding articulation.
Mojca Zlobko Vajgl recorded 8 CDs covering a great part of the literature for her extraordinary instrument.
She is associate professor for harp and chamber music at Music Academy of the University Ljubljana and she has been several times invited to be a member of international juries at harp competitions in Austria and Poland. She also gave masterclasses and participated in exchange of the teachers in the framework of the EU Erasmus programme.


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791):           
         Concerto for Flute, Harp and Orchestra in C major, KV299 (297c)
1       I.    Allegro  (
2       II. Andantino
3       III. Rondeau. Allegro

Sonata No. 4 in F major, KV13

4       I.    Allegro
5       II. Andante
6       III. Menuetto I – Menuetto II

         Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750):                               
Sonata in G minor, BWV 1020
7       I.    Allegro
8       II. Adagio
9       III. Allegro


Karolina Šantl Zupan, flute
Mojca Zlobko Vajgl, harp


The Slovenian Philharmonic Orchestra
Uroš Lajovic, conductor